Write a Test Suite for a Package

This document guides the reader through creating a test suite for a Mynewt package.

Introduction

Writing a test suite involves using the test/testutil package. The testutil library provides the functionality needed to define test suites and test cases.

Choose Your Package Under Test

Choose the package you want to write a test suite for. In this tutorial, we will use the time/datetime in the apache-mynewt-core repo. Throughout this tutorial, we will be inside the apache-mynewt-core repo directory, unlike most tutorials which operate from the top-level project directory.

Create A Test Package

Typically, a library has only one test package. The convention is name the test package by appending /test to the host library name. For example, the test package for encoding/json is encoding/json/test. The directory structure of the json package is shown below:

encoding/json
├── include
│   └── json
│       └── json.h
├── pkg.yml
├── src
│   ├── json_decode.c
│   └── json_encode.c
└── test
    ├── pkg.yml
    └── src
        ├── test_json.c
        ├── test_json.h
        ├── test_json_utils.c
        └── testcases
            ├── json_simple_decode.c
            └── json_simple_encode.c

The top-level test directory contains the json test package. To create a test package for the datetime package, we need to create a similar package called time/datetime/test.

$ newt pkg new time/datetime/test -t unittest
Download package template for package type pkg.
Package successfuly installed into /home/me/mynewt-core/time/datetime/test.

We now have a test package inside time/datetime:

time/datetime
├── include
│   └── datetime
│       └── datetime.h
├── pkg.yml
├── src
│   └── datetime.c
└── test
    ├── README.md
    ├── pkg.yml
    ├── src
    │   └── main.c
    └── syscfg.yml

There is one modification we need to make to the new package before we can start writing unit test code. A test package needs access to the code it will be testing, so we need to add a dependency on @apache-mynewt-core/time/datetime to our pkg.yml file:

 pkg.name: "time/datetime/test"
 pkg.type: unittest
 pkg.description: "Description of your package"
 pkg.author: "You <you@you.org>"
 pkg.homepage: "http://your-url.org/"
 pkg.keywords:

 pkg.deps:
     - '@apache-mynewt-core/test/testutil'
     - '@apache-mynewt-core/time/datetime'

 pkg.deps.SELFTEST:
     - '@apache-mynewt-core/sys/console/stub'

While we have the pkg.yml file open, let’s take a look at what newt filled in automatically:

  • pkg.type: unittest designates this as a test package. A test package is special in that it can be built and executed using the newt test command.
  • A test package always depends on @apache-mynewt-core/test/testutil. The testutil library provides the tools necessary for verifying package behavior,
  • The SELFTEST suffix indicates that a setting should only be applied when the newt test command is used.

Regarding the conditional dependency on sys/console/stub, the datetime package requires some form of console to function. In a regular application, the console dependency would be supplied by a higher order package. Because newt test runs the test package without an application present, the test package needs to supply all unresolved dependencies itself when run in self-test mode.

Create Your Test Suite Code

We will be adding a test suite to the main.c file. The test suite will be empty for now. We also need to invoke the test suite from main().

Our main.c file now looks like this:

#include "sysinit/sysinit.h"
#include "testutil/testutil.h"

TEST_SUITE(test_datetime_suite) {
    /* Empty for now; add test cases later. */
}

#if MYNEWT_VAL(SELFTEST)
int
main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    /* Initialize all packages. */
    sysinit();

    test_datetime_suite();

    /* Indicate whether all test cases passed. */
    return tu_any_failed;
}
#endif

Try It Out

We now have a working test suite with no tests. Let’s make sure we get a passing result when we run newt test:

$ newt test time/datetime
<build output>
Executing test: /home/me/mynewt-core/bin/targets/unittest/time_datetime_test/app/time/datetime/test/time_datetime_test.elf
Passed tests: [time/datetime/test]
All tests passed

Create a Test

To create a test within your test suite, there are two things to do.

  1. Implement the test case function using the testutil macros.
  2. Call the test case function from within the test suite.

For this tutorial we will create a test case to verify the datetime_parse() function. The datetime_parse() function is declared as follows:

/**
 * Parses an RFC 3339 datetime string.  Some examples of valid datetime strings
 * are:
 * 2016-03-02T22:44:00                  UTC time (implicit)
 * 2016-03-02T22:44:00Z                 UTC time (explicit)
 * 2016-03-02T22:44:00-08:00            PST timezone
 * 2016-03-02T22:44:00.1                fractional seconds
 * 2016-03-02T22:44:00.101+05:30        fractional seconds with timezone
 *
 * On success, the two output parameters are filled in (tv and tz).
 *
 * @return                      0 on success;
 *                              nonzero on parse error.
 */
int
datetime_parse(const char *input, struct os_timeval *tv, struct os_timezone *tz)

Our test case should make sure this function rejects invalid input, and that it parses valid input correctly. The updated main.c file looks like this:

#include "sysinit/sysinit.h"
#include "testutil/testutil.h"
#include "os/os_time.h"
#include "datetime/datetime.h"

TEST_SUITE(test_datetime_suite)
{
    test_datetime_parse_simple();
}

TEST_CASE(test_datetime_parse_simple)
{
    struct os_timezone tz;
    struct os_timeval tv;
    int rc;

    /*** Valid input. */

    /* No timezone; UTC implied. */
    rc = datetime_parse("2017-06-28T22:37:59", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT_FATAL(rc == 0);
    TEST_ASSERT(tv.tv_sec == 1498689479);
    TEST_ASSERT(tv.tv_usec == 0);
    TEST_ASSERT(tz.tz_minuteswest == 0);
    TEST_ASSERT(tz.tz_dsttime == 0);

    /* PDT timezone. */
    rc = datetime_parse("2013-12-05T02:43:07-07:00", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT_FATAL(rc == 0);
    TEST_ASSERT(tv.tv_sec == 1386236587);
    TEST_ASSERT(tv.tv_usec == 0);
    TEST_ASSERT(tz.tz_minuteswest == 420);
    TEST_ASSERT(tz.tz_dsttime == 0);

    /*** Invalid input. */

    /* Nonsense. */
    rc = datetime_parse("abc", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT(rc != 0);

    /* Date-only. */
    rc = datetime_parse("2017-01-02", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT(rc != 0);

    /* Zero month. */
    rc = datetime_parse("2017-00-28T22:37:59", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT(rc != 0);

    /* 13 month. */
    rc = datetime_parse("2017-13-28T22:37:59", &tv, &tz);
    TEST_ASSERT(rc != 0);
}

#if MYNEWT_VAL(SELFTEST)
int
main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    /* Initialize all packages. */
    sysinit();

    test_datetime_suite();

    /* Indicate whether all test cases passed. */
    return tu_any_failed;
}
#endif

Take a few minutes to review the above code. Then keep reading for some specifics.

Asserting

The test/testutil package provides two tools for verifying the correctness of a package:

  • TEST_ASSERT
  • TEST_ASSERT_FATAL

Both of these macros check if the supplied condition is true. They differ in how they behave when the condition is not true. On failure, TEST_ASSERT reports the error and proceeds with the remainder of the test case. TEST_ASSERT_FATAL, on the other hand, aborts the test case on failure.

The general rule is to only use TEST_ASSERT_FATAL when subsequent assertions depend on the condition being checked. For example, when datetime_parse() is expected to succeed, the return code is checked with TEST_ASSERT_FATAL. If datetime_parse() unexpectedly failed, the contents of the tv and tz objects would be indeterminate, so it is desirable to abort the test instead of checking them and reporting spurious failures.

Scaling Up

The above example is small and self contained, so it is reasonable to put everything in a single C file. A typical package will need a lot more test code, and it helps to follow some conventions to maintain organization. Let’s take a look at a more realistic example. Here is the directory structure of the fs/nffs/test package:

fs/nffs/test
├── pkg.yml
└── src
    ├── nffs_test.c
    ├── nffs_test.h
    ├── nffs_test_debug.c
    ├── nffs_test_priv.h
    ├── nffs_test_system_01.c
    ├── nffs_test_utils.c
    ├── nffs_test_utils.h
    └── testcases
        ├── append_test.c
        ├── cache_large_file_test.c
        ├── corrupt_block_test.c
        ├── corrupt_scratch_test.c
        ├── gc_on_oom_test.c
        ├── gc_test.c
        ├── incomplete_block_test.c
        ├── large_system_test.c
        ├── large_unlink_test.c
        ├── large_write_test.c
        ├── long_filename_test.c
        ├── lost_found_test.c
        ├── many_children_test.c
        ├── mkdir_test.c
        ├── open_test.c
        ├── overwrite_many_test.c
        ├── overwrite_one_test.c
        ├── overwrite_three_test.c
        ├── overwrite_two_test.c
        ├── read_test.c
        ├── readdir_test.c
        ├── rename_test.c
        ├── split_file_test.c
        ├── truncate_test.c
        ├── unlink_test.c
        └── wear_level_test.c

The fs/nffs/test package follows these conventions:

  1. A maximum of one test case per C file.
  2. Each test case file goes in the testcases subdirectory.
  3. Test suites and utility functions go directly in the src directory.

Test packages contributed to the Mynewt project should follow these conventions.

Congratulations

Now you can begin the work of validating your packages.