System Configuration and Initialization

This guide describes how Mynewt manages system configuration and initialization. It shows you how to tell Mynewt to use default or customized values to initialize packages that you develop or use to build a target. This guide:

  • Assumes you have read the Concepts section that describes the Mynewt package hierarchy and its use of the pkg.yml and syscfg.yml files.
  • Assumes you have read the Newt Tool Theory of Operation and are familiar with how newt determines package dependencies for your target build.
  • Covers only the system initialization for hardware independent packages. It does not cover the Board Support Package (BSP) and other hardware dependent system initialization.

Mynewt defines several configuration parameters in the pkg.yml and syscfg.yml files. The newt tool uses this information to:

  • Generate a system initialization function that calls all the package-specific system initialization functions.
  • Generate a system configuration header file that contains all the package configuration settings and values.
  • Display the system configuration settings and values in the newt target config command.

The benefits with this approach include:

  • Allows Mynewt developers to reuse other packages and easily change their configuration settings without updating source or header files when implementing new packages.
  • Allows application developers to easily view the system configuration settings and values and determine the values to override for a target build.


System Configuration Setting Definitions and Values

A package can optionally:

  • Define and expose the system configuration settings to allow other packages to override the default setting values.
  • Override the system configuration setting values defined by the packages that it depends on.

You use the defs parameter in a syscfg.yml file to define the system configuration settings for a package. defs is a mapping (or associative array) of system configuration setting definitions. It has the following syntax:

syscfg.defs:
    PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME1:
       description:
       value:
       type:
       restrictions:
    PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME2:
       description:
       value:
       type:
       restrictions:


Each setting definition consists of the following key-value mapping:

  • A setting name for the key, such as PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME1 in the syntax example above. Note: A system configuration setting name must be unique. The newt tool aborts the build when multiple packages define the same setting.
  • A mapping of fields for the value. Each field itself is a key-value pair of attributes. The field keys are description, value, type, and restrictions. They are described in following table:
Field Description
description Describes the usage for the setting. This field is optional.
value Specifies the default value for the setting. This field is required. The value depends on the type that you specify and can be an empty string.
type Specifies the data type for the value field. This field is optional. You can specify one of three types:
  • raw - The value data is uninterpreted. This is the default type.
  • task_priority - Specifies a Mynewt task priority number. The task priority number assigned to each setting must be unique and between 0 and 239. value can be one of the following:
    • A number between 0 and 239 - The task priority number to use for the setting.
    • any - Specify any to have newt automatically assign a priority for the setting. newt alphabetically orders all system configuration settings of this type and assigns the next highest available task priority number to each setting.
  • flash_owner - Specifies a flash area. The value should be the name of a flash area defined in the BSP flash map for your target board.
restrictions Specifies a list of restrictions on the setting value. This field is optional. You can specify two formats:
  • $notnull - Specifies that the setting cannot have the empty string for a value. It essentially means that an empty string is not a sensible value and a package must override it with an appropriate value.
  • expression - Specifies a boolean expression of the form [!]<required-setting>[if <base-value>]
    Examples:
    • restrictions: !LOG_FCB - When this setting is enabled, LOG_FCB must be disabled.
    • restrictions: LOG_FCB if 0 - When this setting is disabled, LOG_FCB must be enabled.


Examples of Configuration Settings

Example 1: The following example is an excerpt from the sys/log/full package syscfg.yml file. It defines the LOG_LEVEL configuration setting to specify the log level and the LOG_NEWTMGR configuration setting to specify whether to enable or disable the newtmgr logging feature.

syscfg.defs:
    LOG_LEVEL:
        description: 'Log Level'
        value: 0
        type: raw

       ...       

    LOG_NEWTMGR: 
        description: 'Enables or disables newtmgr command tool logging'
        value: 0


Example 2: The following example is an excerpt from the net/nimble/controller package syscfg.yml file. It defines the BLE_LL_PRIO configuration setting with a task_priority type and assigns task priority 0 to the BLE link layer task.

syscfg.defs:
    BLE_LL_PRIO:
        description: 'BLE link layer task priority'
        type: 'task_priority'
        value: 0


Example 3: The following example is an excerpt from the fs/nffs package syscfg.yml file.

syscfg.defs:
    NFFS_FLASH_AREA:
        description: 'The flash area to use for the Newtron Flash File System'
        type: flash_owner
        value:
        restrictions:
            - $notnull

It defines the NFFS_FLASH_AREA configuration setting with a flash_owner type indicating that a flash area needs to be specified for the Newtron Flash File System. The flash areas are typically defined by the BSP in its bsp.yml file. For example, the bsp.yml for nrf52dk board (hw/bsp/nrf52dk/bsp.yml) defines an area named FLASH_AREA_NFFS:

    FLASH_AREA_NFFS:
        user_id: 1
        device: 0
        offset: 0x0007d000
        size: 12kB

The syscfg.yml file for the same board (hw/bsp/nrf52dk/syscfg.yml) specifies that the above area be used for NFFS_FLASH_AREA.

syscfg.vals:
    CONFIG_FCB_FLASH_AREA: FLASH_AREA_NFFS
    REBOOT_LOG_FLASH_AREA: FLASH_AREA_REBOOT_LOG
    NFFS_FLASH_AREA: FLASH_AREA_NFFS
    COREDUMP_FLASH_AREA: FLASH_AREA_IMAGE_1

Note that the fs/nffs/syscfg.yml file indicates that the NFFS_FLASH_AREA setting cannot be a null string; so a higher priority package must set a non-null value to it. That is exactly what the BSP package does. For more on priority of packages in setting values, see the next section.


Overriding System Configuration Setting Values

A package may use the vals parameter in its syscfg.yml file to override the configuration values defined by other packages. This mechanism allows:

  • Mynewt developers to implement a package and easily override the system configuration setting values that are defined by the packages it depends on.
  • Application developers to easily and cleanly override default configuration settings in a single place and build a customized target. You can use the newt target config <target-name> command to check all the system configuration setting definitions and values in your target to determine the setting values to override. See newt target.

vals specifies the mappings of system configuration setting name-value pairs as follows:

syscfg.vals:
    PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME1: VALUE1
    PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME2: VALUE2
              ...
    PKGN_SYSCFG_NAME1: VALUEN

Note: The newt tool ignores overrides of undefined system configuration settings.


Resolving Override Conflicts

The newt tool uses package priorities to determine whether a package can override a value and resolve conflicts when multiple packages override the same system configuration setting. The following rules apply:

  • A package can only override the default values of system configuration settings that are defined by lower priority packages.
  • When packages with different priorities override the same system configuration setting value, newt uses the value from the highest priority package.
  • Packages of equal priority cannot override the same system configuration setting with different values. newt aborts the build unless a higher priority package also overrides the value.

The following package types are listed from highest to lowest priority:

  • Target
  • App
  • unittest - A target can include either an app or unit test package, but not both.
  • BSP
  • Lib - Includes all other system level packages such as os, lib, sdk, and compiler. (Note that a Lib package cannot override other Lib package settings.)

It is recommended that you override defaults at the target level instead of updating individual package syscfg.yml files.


Examples of Overrides

Example 4: The following example is an excerpt from the apps/slinky package syscfg.yml file. The application package overrides, in addition to other packages, the sys/log/full package system configuration settings defined in Example 1. It changes the LOG_NEWTMGR system configuration setting value from 0 to 1.

syscfg.vals:
    # Enable the shell task.
    SHELL_TASK: 1

       ...

    # Enable newtmgr commands.
    STATS_NEWTMGR: 1
    LOG_NEWTMGR: 1

Example 5: The following example are excerpts from the hw/bsp/native package bsp.yml and syscfg.yml files. The package defines the flash areas for the BSP flash map in the bsp.yml file, and sets the NFFS_FLASH_AREA configuration setting value to use the flash area named FLASH_AREA_NFFS in the syscfg.yml file.

bsp.flash_map:
    areas:
        # System areas.
        FLASH_AREA_BOOTLOADER:
            device: 0
            offset: 0x00000000
            size: 16kB

             ...

        # User areas.
        FLASH_AREA_REBOOT_LOG:
            user_id: 0
            device: 0
            offset: 0x00004000
            size: 16kB
        FLASH_AREA_NFFS:
            user_id: 1
            device: 0
            offset: 0x00008000
            size: 32kB


syscfg.vals:
    NFFS_FLASH_AREA: FLASH_AREA_NFFS


Generated syscfg.h and Referencing System Configuration Settings

The newt tool processes all the package syscfg.yml files and generates the <target-path>/generated/include/syscfg/syscfg.h include file with #define statements for each system configuration setting defined. Newt creates a #define for a setting name as follows:

  • Adds the prefix MYNEWT_VAL_.
  • Replaces all occurrences of "/", "-", and " " in the setting name with "_".
  • Converts all characters to upper case.

For example, the #define for my-config-name setting name is MYNEWT_VAL_MY_CONFIG_NAME.

Newt groups the settings in syscfg.h by the packages that defined them. It also indicates the package that changed a system configuration setting value.

You must use the MYNEWT_VAL() macro to reference a #define of a setting name in your header and source files. For example, to reference the my-config-name setting name, you use MYNEWT_VAL(MY_CONFIG_NAME).

Note: You only need to include syscfg/syscfg.h in your source files to access the syscfg.h file. The newt tool sets the correct include path to build your target.

Example of syscfg.h and How to Reference a Setting Name

Example 6: The following example are excerpts from a sample syscfg.h file generated for an app/slinky target and from the sys/log/full package log.c file that shows how to reference a setting name.

The syscfg.h file shows the sys/log/full package definitions and also indicates that app/slinky changed the value for the LOG_NEWTMGR settings.

/**
 * This file was generated by Apache Newt (incubating) version: 1.0.0-dev
 */

#ifndef H_MYNEWT_SYSCFG_
#define H_MYNEWT_SYSCFG_

/**
 * This macro exists to ensure code includes this header when needed.  If code
 * checks the existence of a setting directly via ifdef without including this
 * header, the setting macro will silently evaluate to 0.  In contrast, an
 * attempt to use these macros without including this header will result in a
 * compiler error.
 */
#define MYNEWT_VAL(x)                           MYNEWT_VAL_ ## x


     ...

/*** kernel/os */
#ifndef MYNEWT_VAL_MSYS_1_BLOCK_COUNT
#define MYNEWT_VAL_MSYS_1_BLOCK_COUNT (12)
#endif

#ifndef MYNEWT_VAL_MSYS_1_BLOCK_SIZE
#define MYNEWT_VAL_MSYS_1_BLOCK_SIZE (292)
#endif

     ...

/*** sys/log/full */

#ifndef MYNEWT_VAL_LOG_LEVEL
#define MYNEWT_VAL_LOG_LEVEL (0)
#endif

     ...

/* Overridden by apps/slinky (defined by sys/log/full) */
#ifndef MYNEWT_VAL_LOG_NEWTMGR
#define MYNEWT_VAL_LOG_NEWTMGR (1)
#endif

#endif

The log_init() function in the sys/log/full/src/log.c file initializes the sys/log/full package. It checks the LOG_NEWTMGR setting value, using MYNEWT_VAL(LOG_NEWTMGR), to determine whether the target application has enabled the newtmgr log functionality. It only registers the the callbacks to process the newtmgr log commands when the setting value is non-zero.

void
log_init(void)
{
    int rc;

    /* Ensure this function only gets called by sysinit. */
    SYSINIT_ASSERT_ACTIVE();

    (void)rc;

    if (log_inited) {
        return;
    }
    log_inited = 1;
        ...

#if MYNEWT_VAL(LOG_NEWTMGR)
    rc = log_nmgr_register_group();
    SYSINIT_PANIC_ASSERT(rc == 0);
#endif
}


System Initialization

During system startup, Mynewt creates a default event queue and a main task to process events from this queue. You can override the OS_MAIN_TASK_PRIO and OS_MAIN_TASK_STACK_SIZE setting values defined by the kernel/os package to specify different task priority and stack size values.

Your application's main() function executes in the context of the main task and must perform the following:

  • At the start of main(), call the Mynewt sysinit() function to initialize the packages before performing any other processing.
  • At the end of main(), wait for and dispatch events from the default event queue in an infinite loop.

Note: You must include the sysinit/sysinit.h header file to access the sysinit() function.

Here is an example of a main() function:

int
main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    /* First, call sysinit() to perform the system and package initialization */
    sysinit();

      ... other application initialization processing....


    /*  Last, process events from the default event queue.  */
    while (1) {
       os_eventq_run(os_eventq_dflt_get());
    }
    /* main never returns */   
}


Specifying Package Initialization Functions

The sysinit() function calls the sysinit_app() function to perform system initialization for the packages in the target. You can, optionally, specify one or more package initialization functions that sysinit_app() calls to initialize a package.

A package initialization function must have the following prototype:

void init_func_name(void)

Package initialization functions are called in stages to ensure that lower priority packages are initialized before higher priority packages. A stage is an integer value, 0 or higher, that specifies when an initialization function is called. Mynewt calls the package initialization functions in increasing stage number order. The call order for initialization functions with the same stage number depends on the order the packages are processed, and you cannot rely on a specific call order for these functions.

You use the pkg.init parameter in the pkg.yml file to specify an initialization function and the stage number to call the function. You can specify multiple initialization functions, with a different stage number for each function, for the parameter values. This feature allows packages with interdependencies to perform initialization in multiple stages.

The pkg.init parameter has the following syntax in the pkg.yml file:

pkg.init: 
    pkg_init_func1_name: pkg_init_func1_stage 
    pkg_init_func2_name: pkg_init_func2_stage 

              ...

    pkg_init_funcN_name: pkg_init_funcN_stage

where pkg_init_func#_name is the C function name of an initialization function, and pkg_init_func#_stage is an integer value, 0 or higher, that indicates the stage when the pkg_init_func#_name function is called.

Note: The pkg.init_function and pkg.init_stage parameters introduced in a previous release for specifying a package initialization function and a stage number are deprecated and have been retained to support the legacy format. They will not be maintained for future releases and we recommend that you migrate to use the pkg.init parameter.


Generated sysinit_app() Function

The newt tool processes the pkg.init parameters in all the pkg.yml files for a target, generates the sysinit_app() function in the <target-path>/generated/src/<target-name>-sysinit_app.c file, and includes the file in the build. Here is an example sysinit_app() function:

**
 * This file was generated by Apache Newt (incubating) version: 1.0.0-dev
 */

#if !SPLIT_LOADER

void split_app_init(void);
void os_pkg_init(void);
void imgmgr_module_init(void);

      ...

void stats_module_init(void);

void
sysinit_app(void)
{

    /*** Stage 0 */
    /* 0.0: kernel/os */
    os_pkg_init();

    /*** Stage 2 */
    /* 2.0: sys/flash_map */
    flash_map_init();

    /*** Stage 10 */
    /* 10.0: sys/stats/full */
    stats_module_init();

    /*** Stage 20 */
    /* 20.0: sys/console/full */
    console_pkg_init();

    /*** Stage 100 */
    /* 100.0: sys/log/full */
    log_init();
    /* 100.1: sys/mfg */
    mfg_init();

         ....

    /*** Stage 300 */
    /* 300.0: sys/config */    
    config_pkg_init();

    /*** Stage 500 */
    /* 500.0: sys/id */
    id_init();
    /* 500.1: sys/shell */
    shell_init();

          ...

    /* 500.4: mgmt/imgmgr */
    imgmgr_module_init();

    /*** Stage 501 */
    /* 501.0: mgmt/newtmgr/transport/nmgr_shell */
    nmgr_shell_pkg_init();
}
#endif


Conditional Configurations

You can use the system configuration setting values to conditionally specify parameter values in pkg.yml and syscfg.yml files. The syntax is:

parameter_name.PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME:
     parameter_value

This specifies that parameter_value is only set for parameter_name if the PKGA_SYSCFG_NAME configuration setting value is non-zero. Here is an example from the libs/os package pkg.yml file:

pkg.deps:
    - sys/sysinit
    - util/mem

pkg.deps.OS_CLI
    - sys/shell

This example specifies that the os package depends on the sysinit and mem packages, and also depends on the shell package when OS_CLI is enabled.

The newt tool aborts the build when it detects circular conditional dependencies.